Research Grant for International Publication
University of Muhammadiyah Malang
In doing responsible research, a scientist or a researcher should really understand that there is a social base in science. It means that research is aimed to broaden human's knowledge on physical, biological, and social world, more than a currently known to a man. However, knowledge or research result will go to the real sphere of science only after the result is presented to the public (publication) in which the validity can be assessed and evaluated independently. Thus, the researcher who has finished the research well should be encouraged to publish it. Research publication is best done through scientific journal. In preparing for publication, an author is under a set of universal values.
The publication process is done through writing the result of the research and send it to scientific journal. In addition, the script will be evaluated by the reviewer carefully and thoroughly so that the content of the script will not mislead people. After the article is published, the reader will assess the result based on their background knowledge (from other sources). In this process, individual knowledge slowly will come to the knowledge sphere. The review and revision process are really important because it can minimize individual's subjectivity effect which states that a research must be accepted by another scientists. From the first journal publication in 1665 until now, the function of scientific journal has not greatly changed, that is as a registration media, dissemination, archiving, and certification of research results.
Science is not a personal experience. Science is a knowledge shared based on the same understanding about physical and social world aspects. Therefore, social convention of science play an important role in stabilizing scientific knowledge. If the convention is violated, science quality will be destroyed. The social convention which has been effectively proved in science is peer review publication. There is a convention that the first inventor is not the first researcher, but the first reporter in the scientific journal. Once a result of a research is being published, it can be used by another researchers to develop science and technology. However, it is important to remember that before the result is accepted as a general science, those who want to cite should refer to the inventor. Through such kind of system, a scientist can get an appreciation from another researchers. Before publishing a research, there are several considerations. If a researcher uses unpublished materials found in a research proposal or a script, he or she will be considered a thief of intellectual property right. In an industry, commercial right on scientific work owned by businessman not a worker, but a similar provision: research result is privilaged until the result is published to the public. Publication on peer review journal still becomes standard method to spread scientific research result. Poster, abstract, general lecture, and proceeding volume are often used to present early result before the deepen one. No matter what the publication method is, it should maintain quality control mechanism. If there is no quality control, it will weaken even deaden convention which has served science well. It offen occurs that there is a scientist who announces an important and controvercial result research directly to the public before it is assessed. If the researcher has done something wrong or if the invention is misinterpreted by media or public, scientific community and the public can have unwanted reaction. If such kind of issue will be published, it should have been after the peer and expert review had been finished. It is usually occurs in the form of scientific journal publication.
A survay conducted by Scientific American in 1994 showed that Indonesian scientist contribution to the world science was only 0.012% per year, far under Singapore which was 0.179%, especially if it was compared to the United States which was more than 25%.
Some western observers commented that Indonesian scientist efforts to contribute to the world science can be called "lost science in the third world". The discordant statement was mainly because of their contribution in the form of research results did not arrive at the hands of the same discipline scientists for the researches were published on limited scope publications. The limitedness was caused by the narrow circulation of scientific journal spreading, the limited number of copies so that it was not subscribed by main libraries of international scientific activity center and language usage.
Therefore, the titles of Indonesian scientist works were not shown on bibliography fast service. The keywords were not taken by internet scan service. Indonesian experts have been stamped as home champion. Therefore, it is not surprising that Indonesian scientific publication registered on Science Citation Index reportage still can be counted using one hand fingers.
In general, a scientific journal is considered of having international aspiration if: it is written using one of United Nations languages so that it has broad reader scope; it publishes articles in which the content can give real contribution to the development of a discipline interested by the world scientists; the publication is managed openly, involving editor council from all over the world, or each article at least is prepared by international experts through review system of world partner anonimously; the authors of the articles come for various countries whose institutes have expert on scientific publication. Along with that, the scientific publication spreading will be worldwide because it is subscribed by various institutions and experts from all over the world who are interested on the discipline.
It is important to consider that there are so many cultural obstacles in paradigm, formulation of research planning, approach on conclusion making, and motivation in publishing the result faced by Indonesian researchers, among others:
aspiration limitedness on scientific activities which are often on local level only, not on national or international level.
the narrow view point and restriction on coverage of activity title (and scientific work title) which are confined
fear to have deepen analysis on data and information collected during the research
there is no widen synthesis to the result found by coparing to another research result, borrowing another's time, utilizing another discipline, tapping another cultures, or referring others' experience on the latest publication
fear in making wide impact conclusions
weakness in creating revolutionary act which enables to give a birth of a grand theory
Only the researchers who know well whether an activity of research results conclusion in the form of high uniqueness output interested by many people of local, national, and international level. It is because of the originality and wide outcome and impact in developing science and technology frontier.
If it is compared to the neighbouring countries, there are very limited number of publication in Indonesia. Data from LIPI showed that in 2004, scientific publication in Indonesia was only 371. Meanwhile, Malaysia had 700 scientific publications, Thailand had 2.125, and Singapore had 3.086. In addition, from the number of researches patented in United States in 2006, Indonesia with number of patents 43 was under Malaysia, Thailand, and Philipine in which each of them patented 694, 164, and 145 scientific inventions. It is not surprising then if position of scientific researches of Indonesian researchers which were published on international scientific journal was only 1/3 compared from Thailand, 1/10 from Korea, 1/50 from RRC and Kenya, and 1/4 from Nigeria.
Report of Thomson Scientific (United Stated) stated that the number of scientific paper published in 2004 by Indonesian researchers (which affiliated to research institution or Indonesian universities) were 522. This number was only 1/3 compared to Malaysia (1438 papers). In ASEAN level, Indonesia was on the fourth rank after Singapore (5781 papers), Thailand (2397 papers) and Malaysia. Indonesia closed to Vietnam (453 papers).
The similar data reported by Science Direct, Elsevier showed that since 1996, research output in Indonesia were about 500 and until 2007 were still less than 1000 papers. Meanwhile, Thailand had been had about 1000 papers in 1996 and it soared to about 5500 in 2007. Malaysia in 1996 had research output for about 1000 and it raised to 3500 in 2007. This number reinforced poor fact of Indonesian researcher's output research in the form of scientific publication.
The low number of researchers' scientific publications in Indonesian universities on international scientific publication is the important obstraction factor of Indonesian unniversities to rank on world class university. Data from THES in 2008 showed that there were only 3 universities (UI, ITB, and UGM) which succeeded achieving 500 world highest ranks. The rank decline of those 3 universities should be worried about. Data in 2006 showed that UI was on rank 250, but then it declined to 395 a year after. ITB was on rank 258 in 2006 dan it then declined to 369. Meanwhile, UGM declined from 270 to 360.
The low rate of scientific publication of lecturers in Indonesian universities is supposed to be caused by low capabilities. It perhaps also caused by low motivation of the lecturers to publish their international scientific journals, whereas Competitive Grant Research, Fundamental Research, and Graduate Program Team Grant (look at Research Manual Edition VII) have clearly demanded research output in the form of scientific publication on international journal. According to data from LAKIP 2007, the number of research funded by HB in 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 were 450, 509, 750, and 1696 titles. In 4 years, the total number was 3405 titles. On the same period, the number of research funded through Fundamental Research were 250, 289, 400, and 846 titles. The total number in four years was 1785 titles. The number of research funded through Graduate Program Team Grant in 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008 were 25, 29, 59, and 80 titles with total title number 193. The total research title funded through those three types of research legally which demanded the receivers to publish the research on international scientific journal was 5383 titles.
Intensive program of scientific writing on intenational scientific publication in 2006 received 68 titles of proposal. However, from the number, there were only 20 titles (29%) qualified to get incentives. In the next year, 2007, the number of proposal was 52 titles, declining from the previous year, but there were 34 titles (65%) qualified for getting incentives. In 2008, the number of proposals roared up to 126 titles. From the number, there were 51 titles (40%) qualified to get incentives. The total number of articles proposed to receive incentives of international publication was 246 titles. The titles which were qualified for incentives (the journals had international reputation, the researches were funded by APBN [there were less number among others which were funded by Competitive, Fundamental, and Graduate Team Grants] in which the main authors were Indonesian and there were Indonesian institution addresses on the credit line of the articles) were 105.
Thus, if it is assumed that all of them come from Competitive Grant, Fundamental Grant, and Graduate Team Program (the fact is only some of them), the percentage is only 105/5383 (about less than 2%, the realization is far under 2%).