Research Programs

Grant of Regency/City Education Potency

University of Muhammadiyah Malang

      Preambule of UUD RI 1945 (Constitution of 1945 of Republic of Indonesia) mandates Indonesian government to protect all the people of Indonesia and the entire country of Indonesia to promote the general welfare, educate life of the nation, and join implementing world order basd on independence, lasting peace, and social justice.

        UUD RI 1945 mandates the government to try performing a national education system which improve faith and obedience to God and noble character in educating life of the nation regulated with constitution;

    National education sysem should be able to guarantee equal educational oportunities, quality improvement, relevance and efficiency of education manegement to face challenge of local, national, and global life change. So, there is a demand of planned, directional, and sustainable educational reform.

        Research and development of excellent education potency in a regency/city will result on objective, qualified, and relevant education with the development of National Education and National Strategic Research. The research on educational potency in a regency/city related to three national educational problems, i.e.: 

Research on expansion and equitable access to education in regency/city, among others: Research of policy and innovation related to completion of 9-year compulsory education and acccess expansion of early chilhood education and secondary education, research and studies on gender, special area, etc.

Research on quality improvement, relevence, and competitiveness of education in regency/city in which among others it relates to curriculum and learning, assessment, administration and school management, and educational staffs.

Research related to management, accountability, and public imaging of education in regency/city are: facilities and infrastructure, funding, educator and teaching staffs, and management of early child education/primary education/secondary education/higher education/education council/school committee/formal education/ non-formal education/informal education/society's participation in education/and study on education institution readiness to BHP and BHMN implementation.

National Strategic Research in education field in regency/city especially related to Education Autonomy and Education for Alleviating Poverty. In this local autonomy era, the role of local government is very vital to the development of education and improvement of education quality. Allignment, concern, and real action from local government will determine the education production the futur, among others exemption of education fees, education facilities improvement, incentives for teachers, scholarships, educator's quality improvement.

  1. Expansion and Equitable Access
  2. Quality improvement, relevance, and competitiveness 
  3. Improvement on management, accountability, ang public imaging
  4. National Strategic Research

          Development on education cannot provide equitable service to all level of society yet. Until 2003, there was still a quite high gap between inter society groups especially between the rich and the poor and between rurals and cities. As a picture, with the Average School Enrollment Rate/Rata-rata Angka Partisipasi Sekolah (APS) – the ratio of the population who attend schools – the group of 13-15 year of age in 2003 reached 81,01 percent, the richest 20% APS group has reached up to 93,98 percent. Meanwhile, the poorest 20% APS group has reached up to 67,23 percent. The bigger gap was on the group of 16-18 year of age with the richest APS group 75,62 percent and the poorest APS group 28,52 percent.

          Using APK indicator, education participation of the poor is still far under the rich especially for junior higher schools and upper. APK of junor high school for the poor group has already reached 61,13 percent, while the rich group has already reached 100 percent. For the secondary school level, the discrepancy looks very real with the poorest APK group 23,17 percent and the richest APK group 81,66 percent. The rate of illiterate people of age 15 upper also shows significant difference that is 4,01 percent for the richest group and 16,9 percent for the poorest group.

          At the same time, rural society education participation is still low compared to the urban. The avarage APS of rural society aged between 13-15 year of age in 2003 was 75,6 percent, while APS of urban society reached up to 89,3 percent. Discrepancy of education participation for group of 16-18 year of age looked more real with APS of urban society 66,7 percent and APS of rural society still reached 38,9 percent. The literacy level of rural society was also lower than urban society. The rate of illiteracy of 15 year of age people and upper in the urban area was 5,49 percent and in rural area was 13,8 percent. Distribution of education is not accompanied by inter area distribution.  

          Data of SUSENAS in 2003 also showed that there was a gap between provinces in APK. APK for junior elementary schools was about 56,82 percent for Province of NTT and 10,57 percent for Province of DI Yogyakarta. At the same time, APK of senior high school was about 77,47 percent for Province of DKI Jakarta and 33,57 percent for Province of Gorontalo.

          Limitedness of the poor to have access to primary education service especially is caused by the high education fee right direct or indirect fee. Although SPP (fee for one semester) for elementary school level has officially removed by the government, but the fact was the society still should pay for school contribution. Expenditure outside the school contribution such as books, stationaries, uniform, transport fee, and allowance also became inhibiting factors for the poor to send their children to school.

         Besides, until 2008, the availability of education facilities for junior high school level and upper in rural area, remote area, and islands were still limited. It added the reluctance of the poor society to send their children attending schools because the increasing cost.

         To overcome problems related to potency and primary and secondary education problems stated above, in fiscal year of 2009, Directorate General of Higher Education needed to conduct research on potency, problems, and policies of primary and secondary education in regency/city of Indonesia.

Download this file Grant of Regency/City Education Potency
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Grant of Regency/City Education Potency


Research Programs


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